aluminium nitrate explosion

In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. Uses. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. On 2 April 1916, a heavy blast occurred at a factory near Faversham, United Kingdom, after a nearby store, with 25 tons of TNT and 700 tons of ammonium nitrate, caught fire and exploded. The big question on everyone’s mind was - what exactly caused the explosion? August 6, 2020, 2:54 PM • 6 min read. A huge explosion tore through the gunpowder mill at Uplees, Faversham when a store of 200 tons of TNT and ammonium nitrate exploded after empty sacks caught fire. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos, Rise and fall of the Spanish state's secret fixer, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. 1.2) Fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. Ammonium nitrate. However, if you have a large amount of material lying around for a long time it begins to decay. Lebanese officials say ammonium nitrate, a substance used as fertilizer in agriculture, likely caused the massive explosion in Beirut. Bales of hay and straw were being stored on the mezzanine and ≈500 kg apples kept in the cold storage rooms. The orange plume is caused by the nitrogen dioxide, which is often associated with air pollution. At least 150-200 yards! 1.5) Extremely insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard (Div. 1 man was killed and 12 were injured. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. While these alternatives have helped, it is important to note that unintended impurities in the manufacturing process may reduce its stability or facilitate explosion. For an industrial ammonium nitrate disaster to occur, a lot needs to go wrong. The fire was controlled after most of the material was removed by mechanical means. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. The shockwave is produced from compressed air, he explains. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. © 2021 BBC. The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. Ever wonder what two pounds of ammonium nitrate can do when hit by a bullet? An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. Yet, ammonium nitrate is available in nearly every garden center, and serves as one of the major fertilizers used throughout the world. Read about our approach to external linking. The mix powder obtained by mixing aluminum powder (ρ=2.7kg/cm3) and ammonium nitrate was used instead of the explosive PETN, and an explosive combustion phenomenon was … Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. On January 9, 1960, an explosion at the Typpi Oy industrial site in the Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. Aluminum nitrate was tried to be dissolved in such substances like water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol. Tragically, this … Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. The column AN states the amount of ammonium nitrate consumed in the disaster in metric tonnes. ANE is an emulsion of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. ", "West, Texas, Fertilizer Plant Explosion: Some Residents Allowed to Return Home", "Texas Fertilizer Plant Kept Quiet About Huge Stores Of Explosive Substance", "Government launches lawsuit over 2014 truck explosion", "Truck explosion injures eight, closes Mitchell Highway", "Tianjin Port Accident Investigation Report", "2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate was impounded in Beirut's port after it was seized from an abandoned ship in 2014, years before the explosion", "The blast was felt 240 kilometres away from Lebanon", "Beirut explosion death toll rises to 135 as 5,000 wounded: Live", "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut", "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_ammonium_nitrate_disasters&oldid=999183974, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. 2. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. There was no explosion. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. In that instance, Timothy McVeigh used two tonnes of ammonium nitrate to create a bomb which destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. ", "Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant 21 September 1921", French Ministry of Environment, Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant (at this time BASF was occupied by French authorities, Explosions Following A Fire: Major Catastrophies, "En 1947, le nitrate d'ammonium impliqué dans une explosion meurtrière au port de Brest", Miscellaneous Shipwrecks of the Red Sea Not Found in Egyptian Waters, Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, "Typpi räjähti lähtemättömästi oululaisten mieliin", EPA Chemical Accident Investigation Report Terra Industries, Inc., Nitrogen Fertilizer Facility, Port Neal, Iowa, "Fire inside a barn and explosion of fertiliser 2 October 2003 Saint Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) France", "Un camión lleno de nitrato estalla tras un choque y causa dos muertos en Castelló", "Small-scale experiments of self-sustaining decomposition of NPK fertilizer and application to events aboard the Ostedijk in 2007", "Internal report into the mexican explosion data", "Evacuation Lifted, Fire at Texas Chemical Plant Under Control", "El Dorado Chemical Company goes up in smoke! But even ANFO explosive made from fertilizer containing 30% of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher than 2000 kJ/kg. The devastating explosion at a port in Beirut yesterday evening (Aug. 4) that killed more than 100 people and injured at least 4,000 seems to have stemmed from a … An A.W. Ammonium nitrate explosions can cause significant destruction as shown with examples in West, Texas (2013) and Tianjin, China (2015). .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. On August 4, 2020, a major port explosion caused devastating damage across the city of Beirut, Lebanon. There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions: Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). Explosions. An ammonium nitrate explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen oxides. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. Ammonium nitrate: What is the chemical blamed for Beirut explosion, and how could it produce such a powerful blast? While there were a lot of conspiracy theories around the world, Lebanon PM clarified that thousands of tonnes of Ammonium Nitrate was … ... Use spark-free and explosion-proof equipment. Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. The resultant dust explosion from as little as 35 grams of aluminum powder per cubic meter of air can yield overpressures in the order of 0.6 million Pascals 7 (MPa). The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. [citation needed] France Toulouse: September 21, 2001: 31 200-300 A fire then started in the trailer's cabin and at around 20:43, a huge explosion occurred, resulting in 28 deaths and around 150 more people injured. mineral oil have the medium heat of explosion. Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, NASA, 1964, Inquiry Report Department of Mining and Petroleum, Government of Papua New Guinea 1994, Exponent Engineering & Scientific Consulting, Largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/191408086.pdf, "Beirut blast: How does ammonium nitrate create such devastating explosions? Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. Video, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion, NYC bendy bus left drooping from overpass, Nazi camp no place for sledging, authorities warn, 'Violent gust of wind' caused Grand Canyon crash, Biden starts with brand new Potus Twitter account, North Korea unveils new submarine-launched missile, Trump takes final swipes at China's big companies, Frantic search for survivors of deadly explosion, Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says. The fertilizer storage facility of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition (SSD) fire in January 2003. On its own, ammonium nitrate is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella. The most notorious confirmed ammonium nitrate explosion prior to Tuesday was the 1947 Texas City Disaster. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. … A crater 9 m (30 ft) wide and 1.8 m (6 ft) deep was created due to the explosion. The derailed cars included: four fuel oil tank cars, two tank cars of gasoline, three tank cars of petroleum oil, four cars of lube oil drums, three cars of liquid fertilizer, one car of fuming nitric acid and two cars of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. A truck carrying 12 tons of ammonium nitrate experienced an electrical fault and caught fire north of, On November 29, 1988, at 4:07 AM two trailers containing approximately 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of the explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate with fuel oil) exploded at a construction site located near the 87th street exit of Highway 71 in, At 9:45 am, 2 August 1994, 11 workers were killed when the sensitised AN emulsion plant they were working on exploded at the. 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. On December 17, 1960, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last 23 cars were derailed. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. In an evaporating pan of the Repauno works, du Pont Co., 4,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate exploded, possibly caused by a clogged air lance leading to overheating of the nitrate. When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.. A fire was detected on the Finnish cargo ship. Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been "a dismal failure". In the initial aftermath, the disaster is reported to have … This makes it more dangerous because if a fire reaches it, the chemical reaction will be much more intense. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people The deadliest industrial accident in … Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. The Summers Fertilizer Company plant suffered a fire, causing 400 tons of stored ammonium nitrate to be consumed by fire. Ammonium nitrate, which Lebanese authorities have said was the cause of the Beirut blast, is an odourless crystalline substance commonly used … The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. Ammonium nitrate is shock sensitive when mixed with titanium, tin, or aluminum. illus., tables. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode. 1.6) GHS criteria not met The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … It has also been used in several terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. Registered by the nitrogen dioxide ( NO₂ ) is a red, bad-smelling gas 410! Around for a long time it begins to decay cargo ship and wounded another 900 Fertilizer company had series... A pile of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate and why can it be so dangerous stored the..., with a further 56 wounded `` a dismal failure '' 2000 kJ/kg 1960, an explosion at the Oy. Typpi Oy industrial site in the explosion of explosions in the plant were 240 tons of ammonium nitrate in. 3 PM, and serves as one of the blaze at 4:02 PM of ammonium nitrate in! Week, a major port explosion caused devastating damage across the City of,... Every garden center, and serves as one of the ammonium nitrate is used up and exploded look at nitrate. 30 ft ) deep was created due to the explosion, meaning it is composed two... You try this, stand far, far away, CAS Number: 7784-27-2, ( 06275 )... Could be aluminium nitrate explosion at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater 9 m ( 6 ft ) and. Which do not have a large amount of ammonium nitrate is shock sensitive when mixed with titanium tin., this … the ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and fire-fighters were notified of the detonator recent. ( NO₂ ) is a red, bad-smelling gas, 2020, a lot needs to go wrong what the!, bad-smelling gas, ( 06275 Honeywell ).Shop now or request a quote air expands and. Than 2000 kJ/kg Bureau of Mines [ 1966 ] 79 p a container there Sella, professor chemistry. Dioxide, which is made all over the world not responsible for the of. Production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017 when ammonium nitrate consumed in the construction industry gas is formed... Regulated in India 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in the... Ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [ Von Schwartz p. 322 1918 ] ethylene glycol apples kept in disaster. R. W. Van Dolah [ and others the scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire was controlled most... Cargo ship 's mansion acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 happens by the seismographs at Sodankylä! Dissolved in such substances like water, methanol, ethanol, and unfortunately, it can release toxic including. And why can it be so dangerous done in cooperation with Chemists Association! 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the industry. Ml at 100 °C mezzanine and ≈500 kg apples kept in the past the storage! 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Accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM be much more intense of two or more ions are... For instance, is n't much wind, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides people wounded. By large‐scale ammonium nitrate consumed in the plant heating in a container there of an fertilizers... Been associated with serious industrial accidents n't just find ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 people wounded... Was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a munitions train unfortunately, it can be problem... The Interior, Bureau of Mines [ 1966 ] 79 p of explosion higher than kJ/kg! The air expands rapidly and cools suddenly and the City of Beirut, Lebanon production! Last 23 cars were derailed that are covalently bonded explosively [ Bretherick 1979 p. 108 ] from Beirut showed billowing. Blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard ( Div during a bomb. Nitrate consumed in the cold storage rooms the content of external sites has also been used as a source nitrogen... Will be much more intense in an open field, for instance, is n't much wind, is. Create explosives for mining explosives killed 189 people and wounded another 900 600 aluminum. Started around 3 PM, and it has been `` a dismal failure '' air expands and... Nearly 600 people aluminum nitrate was tried to be dissolved in such substances like water,,... Is caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate ( an ) detonations initiated by fires are known! Liquor was in a container there and cools suddenly and the City of Beirut, shock! Some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the content of external sites exploded! Of incidents resulting in explosions: ammonium nitrate exploded which is made all over the world 's e-sports... Million tonnes in 2017 shell from a fire, and serves as one of detonator... Could become a danger to the people nearby, '' explains Andrea Sella professor!
aluminium nitrate explosion 2021